The State of Nature Report 2023 is a testament to the dedicated efforts of thousands of volunteers and experts who monitor and record the United Kingdom’s biodiversity. RSPB provided the secretariat to 60 partner organisations to collate data from the UK and the comprehensive report paints a stark picture of our nature, revealing an alarming and ongoing decline in our precious flora and fauna. Over the past 50 years, the UK has grappled with significant losses in native plants, animals, and fungi. This decline is exacerbated by centuries of habitat destruction, development, and wildlife persecution, placing the UK among the world’s most nature-depleted countries.
However, the report offers hope by highlighting our improved understanding of the State of Nature and the effectiveness of conservation efforts. On average, species in the UK have declined by 19% since 1970. In Northern Ireland, 12% of assessed species are at risk of extinction, and over half of flowering plants and bryophytes have disappeared from their once-thriving habitats. As we explore the report’s findings, we will uncover the factors behind this decline, address pressing threats, and emphasize the crucial role each individual plays in securing a more hopeful future for our natural world. Together, we must ensure that future generations inherit a biodiverse and thriving environment rather than one diminished by inaction.
Northern Ireland is home to a rich and diverse natural environment, characterized by its lush landscapes, rugged coastlines, and unique wildlife. However, this precious natural heritage faces numerous challenges and pressures that threaten its existence. In this blog post, we will delve into the various environmental issues affecting Northern Ireland, from habitat loss to pollution and the impacts on its diverse flora and fauna.
Habitat Loss and Land Use
One of the foremost concerns for Northern Ireland’s natural environment is habitat loss. Over the years, human intervention has led to the reduction of natural habitats due to urbanization, development, and intensive land management. Farmland dominates the terrestrial landscape, with a significant shift towards improved grassland. This change in land use affects biodiversity, as many species depend on diverse habitats for survival. Moreover, the increase in urbanisation and tourism has led to higher levels of human disturbance in natural areas, which can introduce invasive non-native species and pathogens, further jeopardizing local ecosystems.
Agriculture plays a crucial role in Northern Ireland’s economy, but it also poses significant challenges to the environment. Livestock farming, particularly in the pig and laying hen sectors, has expanded, leading to higher stocking densities and increased greenhouse gas emissions. Although emissions from other sectors have decreased, agriculture remains a major contributor, highlighting the need for sustainable practices. Ammonia emissions, mainly from agriculture, persist at high levels and pose a significant threat to plant and lichen populations. Ancient woodlands, in particular, are at risk due to this pollution, affecting mycorrhizal fungi and tree health. Efforts are underway to mitigate these impacts through afforestation programs, but careful planning is necessary to avoid further harm to priority species and habitats.
Peatlands and Upland Heath
Northern Ireland boasts a substantial peatland resource, yet only 15% of assessed peatland is in good condition. Restoration efforts are critical to preserve this vital natural capital, as healthy peatlands provide essential benefits to both species and habitats. Upland heaths also face challenges from uncontrolled habitat burning and wildfires, which are expected to become more frequent in the future. Researchers are studying the impact of high ammonia levels on peatlands, which could further complicate restoration efforts.
Northern Ireland’s rivers and freshwater lakes face deteriorating ecological and chemical conditions. The presence of persistent, bio accumulative, toxic substances in these ecosystems further exacerbates the problem. We only have to look at recent issues with Lough Neagh to know we cannot continue to ignore the pollution in our rivers and lakes. It is crucial to address these issues and implement measures to restore the health of these freshwater systems.
Northern Ireland’s diverse coastline and seabeds are under pressure from various sources, including offshore wind farms and unsustainable fisheries. Advances in wind farm technology are outpacing our knowledge of their impact on marine habitats, particularly those used by seabirds. Seabird populations on islands like Rathlin Island have been affected by invasive species and avian influenza outbreaks. A lack of data regarding marine predators and their feeding areas hinders our understanding of the marine ecosystem.
To assess extinction risk, Red List assessments for species occurring in Northern Ireland have been examined. Approximately 11.5% of assessed species are classified as threatened, with plants, vertebrates, and invertebrates all facing challenges. The conservation of these species requires concerted efforts to protect their habitats and address the factors contributing to their decline.
What Can We Do?
Northern Ireland’s natural environment is a priceless treasure that demands protection and conservation. Efforts to address habitat loss, agriculture’s impact, pollution, and other environmental pressures are crucial to safeguard the region’s biodiversity. Collaboration among government agencies, conservation organizations, and local communities is essential to ensure that Northern Ireland’s unique natural heritage continues to thrive for generations to come. Addressing the environmental challenges outlined in the State of Nature Report is not the responsibility of any single entity. It’s a collective effort that requires commitment, cooperation, and action from all of us. Together, we can strive to reverse the decline in biodiversity and ensure a more sustainable future for Northern Ireland’s natural heritage. We will follow up with a blog post outlining our ideas of how we can tackle these issues.
Our choices today will determine the state of our nature tomorrow, so let’s choose wisely!
Burns, F, Mordue, S, al Fulaij, N, Boersch-Supan, PH, Boswell, J, Boyd, RJ, Bradfer-Lawrence, T, de Ornellas, P, de Palma, A, de Zylva, P, Dennis, EB, Foster, S, Gilbert, G, Halliwell, L, Hawkins, K, Haysom, KA, Holland, MM, Hughes, J, Jackson, AC, Mancini, F, Mathews, F, McQuatters-Gollop, A, Noble, DG, O’Brien, D, Pescott, OL, Purvis, A, Simkin, J, Smith, A, Stanbury, AJ, Villemot, J, Walker, KJ, Walton, P, Webb, TJ, Williams, J, Wilson, R, Gregory, RD, 2023. State of Nature 2023, the State of Nature partnership, Available at: www.stateofnature.org.uk
Stay tuned for more exciting news and join our movement to conserve our native wildflowers for generations to come! Together, we can make a real difference.
Want to stay up to date with our latest news? Subscribe to our email newsletter by entering your details and hitting Sign Up below.
Want to support our work? Become a member today!